Exploratory analyses indicated that the missing values were likely Missing At Random MAR , and so the MI-based estimates were unbiased and allowed retention of the maximum sample. Roommate influence and perceived permanent party norms were not significant predictors of smoking reinitiation. Previous smokers who perceived that the majority of their classmates smoked were also more likely to reinitiate smoking, although this influence was not as strong as that seen among previous nonsmokers. An examination of the control variables indicates that previous smokers were more likely to reinitiate smoking after basic training if they were not under a smoking ban, if they had used alcohol in the month before basic training, and if they had symptoms of depression. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. This finding is consistent with the literature that salient peer models and social norms are some of the strongest influences on the initiation of smoking Buller et al. The depression, peer norms, permanent party norms and roommate influence measures showed a considerable proportion of missing values prior to multiple imputation. American Journal of Health Behavior.
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